Learning how to improve your writing skills is an important way to master practical skills you’ll need throughout your life, even if you don’t consider yourself a good writer.

Everyone should have some basic sense of writing skills, even if you’re shooting for a career path that isn’t writing-based. No matter who you are or what you do, you’re always going to need to know how to write emails, reports, cover letters, and other professional documents throughout your career.

Just like food fuels your body, practicing and improving on your writing skills fuels your mind. You don’t just eat one meal to survive – you eat every day to continue nourishing your physical capabilities and live your life. The same thing goes for writing. Even if you’ve been writing essays forever and have a general sense of the skill, you should always want to improve yourself. Fortunately, our writing team at Awasam is the best place to go to for tips and advice to help you get there, and we’re here to help.

Here are some foolproof tips on how to improve your writing skills right from the minds of our brilliant writing team, guaranteed to help you hone in on your skills and produce high-quality written content, no matter what purpose you need it for.


The first place you should start when it comes to learning how to improve your writing skills is the English language itself. No matter what your background with the English language is, whether you’ve been speaking English your entire life or you’ve learned it as a second language, there is always room to improve your grammar.

Of course, as a student, your professor is going to be grading you on your use of grammar, but it’s about more than just surface value. Grammar is the backbone of the English language, and it teaches us exactly how to formulate sentences and communicate ideas in a constructive, effective way.

Grammar and punctuation mistakes don’t just impact your ability to write academically – they make you look bad in a professional setting, too. There is nothing more unprofessional and easily avoidable than a typo on a professional product, like a menu or an advertisement.


Yes, you read that correctly – reading more can actually help you learn how to improve your writing skills. The more you read, the more familiar you are with good writing, and the more ideas you’ll get to put your own skills to work.

Read anything you can. Whether it’s a novel, a textbook, or even just news articles, absorb everything you’re interested in reading. The more variety you introduce into your reading schedule, the more well-rounded your own approach will become, and you can start to recognize different types of writing.

When you read, you start to notice the techniques and writing styles that other authors are using. You also start to notice whether those techniques and writing styles work well or not. While reading, if you see something you really like or that stands out to you, make note of it so you can practice it in your own writing.


Good writing flows properly, effectively communicates a message, and gives the reader a clear point to follow. How do you make sure that you have good flow and structure? With an outline!

No matter what you’re writing, whether it’s a piece of fiction or an academic essay, use an outline to organize your thoughts before you dive into the writing process. Adding your points to an outline helps you organize the structure and determine which points to focus on, and which order you’ll do this in.

If you’re writing an academic essay, an outline is a great way to track what type of points and evidence you’re going to need from your research. This helps you avoid wasting your time digging through library databases and search engines trying to find an argument that will work.

Additionally, if you run into writer’s block along the way, going back to your outline can be a helpful way to re-motivate yourself or get back into the zone. You’ll be much less likely to get stuck if you have a clear outline that guides the flow of your work.


If you want to really learn how to improve your writing skills, you need to be able to visualize yourself as your reader. This is the best way to make sure that you convey your point and that your message is structured well enough to leave a lasting impression.

Read through your work and pretend you’re reading this as an audience member. Ask yourself the following questions:

● Did you give your reader enough information to convey your point?

● Can you visualize your message in your head based on what you’ve written?

● Do your sentences make sense to an outsider or someone with little background information?

● Would you agree with this message if you didn’t write it yourself?

If you can’t answer yes to these questions honestly, it’s time to go through your work and refine your writing.


In his essay Politics and the English Language, George Orwell states: “Never use a long word where a short one will do,” and “If it is possible to cut a word out, always cut it out.”

If you’re writing an academic essay, you might be tempted to use a lot of jargon or technical, industry-specific terms to make yourself sound more knowledgeable. However, this can hinder your writing because all of those long, complicated words can distract your reader from the point you’re making. It’s okay to throw in some industry keywords, but try to keep things simple and direct.

The simpler and more direct your sentences are, the easier it is for your reader to understand and absorb your message. This doesn’t mean you have to dumb down your work. It just means you should get to the point clearly. Unless your name is William Shakespeare or J.R.R. Tolkien, there is no need to make your sentences overly complicated or complex.

If you can’t explain something in simpler terms, then you don’t actually understand it that well. The ability to take a concept and explain it to someone else in your own simple words is a sign that you have absorbed and learned that information properly.


Cliches might sound fun to use, but all that glitter isn’t gold (see what we did there?).

A cliche is an overused phrase, or idiom, that has a general meaning and is usually used in casual conversation. It’s not intended to be taken literally and is usually meant to be metaphorical. Some examples include “every cloud has a silver lining” or “the apple doesn’t fall far from the tree.”

Using cliches will not make your writing any stronger or more descriptive. In fact, it will have the opposite effect. Cliches and overused statements can actually make your writing look lazier or unimaginative. When you’re writing an academic essay, that’s an instant eye roll from your professor. It gives off the impression that you didn’t put much thought into your work, especially when you choose to include a cliche as your opening hook in your introduction.

Not only that, but using cliches can actually hinder your reader’s ability to visualize what you’re saying. Chances are, they’ve already associated that cliche with something else because they have more than likely heard it before in their lifetime. If you want your writing to be memorable and effective, don’t use cliches.

Consider this example from the University of North Carolina Chapel Hill: two applicants have written personal statements as part of their college application. One student uses various cliches, such as “I’m a jack-of-all-trades,” while the other uses specific examples from their background and experience. The student who used the cliches is a less favourable candidate because they didn’t put any originality or personal experience into their writing.

Whenever you’re writing and you find yourself inclined to throw a cliche into your work, stop and think about why you want to use it there and the point you’re trying to make. If you really need to make some kind of comparison or add descriptive words, use a powerful metaphor instead.


Remember this: you can always go back and edit your writing to make it better, but if you don’t start writing in the first place you won’t have anything at all to work with. It’s better to have a less than impressive rough draft that you can edit and improve than a blank document. You have to start somewhere.

Write down whatever comes to your head. It doesn’t matter how good it is at this point. Just get something written down and come back to it later on. If you need to write bullet points for now with general ideas, do that. This is a good mindset to get into because it’s much more productive than sitting around waiting for a great idea to come to you.


Whether you’re learning how to improve your writing skills, trying to get ahead in your schoolwork, or anything else in life, it always helps to set goals. They don’t have to be major goals, like finishing a novel in a week. But they do need to be something productive and achievable. For example, set a goal to write a certain number of words every day, even if you have to sit down and force yourself to do it.

“I’m going to finish my 20-page essay the day before it’s due” is not a realistic goal. However, “I’m going to write 500 words a day starting two weeks before my essay is due” is a productive, realistic goal.

If you make your goal small, like writing a paragraph a day or setting aside 10 minutes a day to write, chances are you’ll end up writing more than you planned once you start going. However, if your goal is smaller, it’s a lot easier to find the motivation to start it.

When writing an academic essay, try breaking your essay down into steps and using those steps as individual goals. For example, one goal can be completing your outline. The next goal can be completing your introductory paragraph. After that, the next goal is writing the first body paragraph, and so on. This is a great way to make the academic writing process a little easier to maintain, and less of a drag to start.


It may be tempting sometimes to just skip the editing process and turn in what you’ve got because you’re so tired of sitting in front of your computer trying to turn out words. However, the editing process is important and should never be overlooked.

Let your work sit for a bit and come back to it with a fresh set of eyes. When you do this, you will almost always come across something that doesn’t read as well or might be more confusing than you intended. This is also an important step in the writing process because this is when you can go over and fine-tune your work, and maybe catch some words that don’t need to be included (like filler words).

Having another set of eyes on your work is also a key step if you have someone available to look over your writing. It’s difficult to look at your own work with a critical lens because it’s something that you created, so you don’t always see those minor errors right away. If you’d like a professional to take a look, you can always use our editing and proofreading services. Our top professional writers will read your work and leave you with some constructive and helpful feedback to make your writing stronger.


When it comes to learning how to improve your writing skills, nothing will help you more than practicing. Experience is everything.

If you ask Malcolm Gladwell, it takes about 10,000 hours of deliberate practice to master a skill. That’s the equivalent of nine years of practicing for a minimum of three hours a day! Chances are, you don’t have time for that – no one has that kind of time these days.

Here’s something a little more practical from Josh Kaufman: make a commitment to dedicate a set period of distraction-free time each day to practice working on your writing, and work on reaching those goals we mentioned earlier. For example, tell yourself you’re going to write 500 words a day.

Even if you just practice writing whatever comes to your mind, such as through journaling or writing down your thoughts, this can be helpful. Write something you know you aren’t going to show anyone, and practice working on sentence structure, descriptions, and anything else you’re struggling with. Do this as often as you can to give yourself some more experience in different techniques.


Need some more ideas on how to improve your writing skills? Here are some quick, digestible tips for improving your writing:

● Get comfortable while writing and choose a spot where you can work without distractions.

● Read your writing out loud. Sometimes we think things make sense on paper, but when we read them out loud they don’t exactly translate the way we think they do.

● Avoid using the passive voice unless you’re specifically required to use it. Active voice is much easier to read and helps you get right to the point.

● Get as many eyes on your work as possible to give you constructive and helpful feedback along the way. Be open to feedback and don’t take it personally if someone gives you a suggestion.

● Go through and remove any fluff or qualifying words such as “very” or “really.” These words don’t add anything of value and usually take away from the main point you’re trying to make.


Trying to figure out how to write a reflection paper and not really sure where to start? This type of assignment is a deviation from the academic norm, so it’s natural to have a few questions about what it is you’re supposed to be doing.

A reflection paper is a refreshing type of assignment that can offer you a break from the more rigorous research papers and argumentative essays you’re used to writing. This gives you a chance to write your own thoughts and opinions on something from a more personal perspective instead of gathering evidence and making fact-based points. You get a chance to speak your mind instead of producing conclusions from other peoples’ work

However, at the end of the day, this is still an academic paper that you’re going to be turning in as part of your grade. You’ll need to know what it takes to make sure your reflection paper gets you that A. Fortunately, we are always here to help. This guide will show you exactly how to write a reflection paper so you can get ahead in any of your classes.


An important first step to learning how to write a reflection paper that will get you the best grade is understanding what exactly you need to be doing. Therefore, first we need to discuss what a reflection paper actually is.

The goal of a reflection paper is to write a critical reflection with your thoughts and perception of a particular work or subject. In other words, a reflection paper is a written personal reflection on your thoughts and ideas about a particular piece, such as a book, article, movie, or speech. You could write a reflection paper on just about anything, from your views on how the universe works to your thoughts about your favourite movie. In an academic context, you’ll often be asked to write a reflection on an academic journal article, an expert theory, or a particular text you’re studying.

Writing a reflection paper is a great way to get in touch with your own thoughts and emotions and reflect on how  you really feel about a specific topic or subject. Learning how to analyze a text and think about it in reflective terms is also a great way to practice your critical and analytical skills for the rest of your academic and professional career.


When you’re trying to learn how to write a reflection paper, it’s important that you understand the difference between a critical reflection and an academic paper, such as a research paper or expository essay.

A key difference between the two is that a reflection paper can be in the first person, while an academic paper should always be written in third person. This doesn’t mean you can start using slang and casual language, but it does mean that you can get more personal in your writing.

Another key difference is the structure of the paper. An academic essay follows a specific 5-point structure where each body paragraph is dedicated to proving a main point in the thesis statement. A reflection paper can be written in a more open structure, with each paragraph integrating or exploring a new experience, idea, or perspective – like a journal instead of an essay.

Don’t get caught up in the idea that a reflection paper is a personal essay where you’re free to write as if you’re talking to a friend. While it isn’t the same as an academic paper, your reflection should still follow formal and academic guidelines for writing, including proper grammar and a professional tone.

The University of Toronto provides some examples of how you can differentiate between the two types of writing and make sure that your critical reflection follows the right conventions.


Now that you know what the assignment is, if you really want to learn how to write a reflection paper, you should know what type of paper you have to write. While the goal of most reflection papers is the same, to showcase your thoughts and opinions, there are a few different types you may be required to do.

Here are some of the types of reflection papers out there that you may be assigned at some point:

● Personal Reflection: In a personal reflection, you’ll explore your opinions, thoughts, and feelings on a particular topic.

● Educational Reflection: This is the most common type of reflection paper you will be assigned in college or university. An educational reflection is your personal response to a book, movie, article, or lecture that showcases what you’ve learned and how you’ve interpreted the subject.

● Professional Reflection: A type of reflection usually used with fields such as teaching and social work, a professional reflection is used to analyze professional behaviour and development within a particular setting.

● Self-Reflection: At some point, you may be asked to write a self-reflection. Usually it’ll be assigned after a major project or presentation, or at the end of a course. This type of reflection doesn’t really need to be as formal and is usually your professor’s way of checking in to see how you’ve learned and grown in the class.

● Experiential Reflection: Usually used within fields where theory is applied to practice, such as in nursing or business, an experiential reflection requires you to take concepts you’ve learned and connect them to practical experience within the field.


Since your reflection paper is a personal perspective where you point out your opinions and viewpoints, there isn’t really a wrong answer. Therefore, since it’s so subjective, you might be wondering how exactly your professor is going to be grading your assignment.

Ultimately, your professor will analyze the way you’ve communicated your point, the connections you’ve made to broader ideas, and the way you have interpreted your own perception. They are looking for you to self-analyze and address the way that your personal experiences have shaped your view on the world around you.

Here are some elements that your professor will be looking for in your reflection paper:

● Your personal connection to the subject material.

● A connection between this subject and the broader context of your course or class.

● Your ability to deconstruct the material and recognize how your own experiences shape your interpretation.

● Clear, cohesive writing and organized flow throughout your paper.

● A re-evaluation of your own ideas and how they have been impacted by the subject at hand.


Types of perceptual distortions:

Types of perceptual distortions:

Perception is the way toward incorporating their condition. In layman’s words, it is a half-production procedure to understand their environment to react legitimately. The current condition of the perceptual beneficiary depends on the brain, character and appreciation, where there is dependably a blunder in the depiction and ensuing data.


Stereotyping is specific gathering or class (social, ethnic, religious, or sexual introductions) just based on enrollment of the property, for example, he is an Italian, so he knows a ton about Rome. The most widely recognized, the adjustment in the obstruction

Halo effect:

Halo effect is between the two, a steady paying little respect to the general population is a component of the innovation depends on the numerous highlights Bust constructive effect on the great quality, have an antagonistic effect of terrible element in the purposes behind the other party less experienced individual, a notable attributes of the solid good ramifications For example, he is chuckling, so he should come clean.

Selective Perception:

Selective perception is the alternative Awareness Support and trust in the data that affirms the conviction that the pre-channel that depicts the particular data.


Projection that they have the properties themselves or hand over to others emotions. For example, I have a few things that I experience the ill effects of it will put off, to defer our gathering can state an example he says.




Early Childhood: Physical and Cognitive Development

DIRECTION: Circle ONLY the letter to the correct answer and write the page number where you

found the answer in the right hand margin.

1. From birth to age 5, the rate of growth in height:

A. declines sharply B. increases sharply

C. proceeds at a steady pace D. declines gradually

2. Which statement characterizes the appearance of most children?

A. Before age 2 children are slim and wiry and gain weight after age 2

B. From ages 2 to 6 children are generally slimmer than prior to age 2

C. Children maintain a chubby, top-heavy appearance until after age 6

D. Children are generally slim from birth through around the age of 6

3. Which motor skill develops more slowly?

A. gross B. grand

C. balance D. fine

4. It is recommended that a vision exam by an optometrist be performed on a child by _______of


A. 5 to 6 years B. 3 to 4 years

C. 1 to 2 years D. 6 to 8 months

5. The brain of a typical 5-year-old will weigh _______ of its adult weight while her body will be

only about _______ of its adult weight.

A. 90 percent, one-third B. 50 percent, one-half

C. 30 percent, three-fourths D. 25 percent, nine-tenths

6. Cody has trouble sitting in his seat during class lessons and finds it difficult to focus on work

assigned to him in class or for homework. He bickers with his classmates and with his brother. His

pediatrician has suggested that Cody might benefit from Ritalin (methylphenidate). Cody has most

probably been diagnosed with:


B. autism

C. otitis media

D. Asperger’s syndrome

7. In general, a child can eat most of the foods in family meals at what age?

A. 6 months B. 1 year

C. 2 years D. 3 ½ years

8. According to recent research, what is the most common chronic disease of early childhood?

A. cancer B. diabetes

C. cavities D. multiple sclerosis

Page 1 (Chapter 7 Survey)

9. Which of the following foods are common allergens?

A. eggs B. milk

C. peanuts D. all of these

10. In Westernized cultures, toilet training is usually mastered by:

A. age 1 ½ B. age 2

C. age 3 D. age 4

11. By what age do most children no longer require a daytime nap?

A. age 1 ½ B. age 2

C age 3 D. age 4

e h t s i t a h t e s a e s i d c i r t a i d e p c i n o r h c , s u o i r e s a s i _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ . 2 1 d l i h c r o f n o s a e r n o m m o c t s o m

. admission to the hospital and is a major cause of school absences

A. Measles B. Mumps

C. Asthma D. Diabetes

13. Research which found that identical twins raised apart had IQ scores more alike than fraternal

twins raised together would tend to support which view of intelligence?

A. environmental B. ecological

C. holistic D. hereditarian

14. According to Piaget, children between the ages of 2 and 7 are in which stage of development?

A. concrete operations

B. preoperational

C. conservational

D. formal operations

15. The theory that probes children’s developing conceptions of major components of mental

activity is called:

A. the theory of mind

B. mental constructs

C. cognitive conception

D. concept development

16. The study of sounds in a language is called:

A. grammatical awareness

B. syntax

C. phonology

D. semantics

17. Which statement about stuttering is true?

A. Girls are more likely to suffer from stuttering than boys are.

B. Geneticists do not currently believe that stuttering is inherited.

C. There are no effective intervention services available for stutterers.

D. Parents should see a speech pathologist for stuttering children.

Page 2 (Chapter 7 Survey)

18. _________ refers to the retention of what has been experienced; _______ refers to remembering

what was learned earlier (for example, a scientific concept).

A. Recall; memory

B. Memory; recall

C. Recognition; memory

D. Recognition; recall

19. According to Piaget, preschool children have an underdeveloped moral sense because they lack

the ability to:

A. show altruistic behavior

B. understand intentionality

C. have sympathetic feelings

D. communicate their feelings

20. The developmental psychologist who researched the development of moral reasoning by

studying differences in children’s reasoning about moral dilemmas is:

A. Lev Vygotsky

B. Noam Chomsky

C. Lawrence Kohlberg

D. Howard Gardner

Page 3 (Chapter 7 Survey)



Early Childhood: Emotional and Social Development

NAME _________________________________________DATE ________________________

DIRECTION: Circle ONLY the letter to the correct answer and write the page number where you

found the answer in the right hand margin.

1. Research has indicated that children aged 5 and aged 7 who employed ________solutions were

judged to be more socially competent, displaying fewer attention problems and disruptive


A. prosocial

B. cognitive

C. logical

D. surreptitious

2. All of the following can contribute to delays in emotional self-regulation EXCEPT:

A. prematurity

B. developmental disabilities

C. parental divorce

D. low-income household

3. All of the following tend to characterize girls’ play EXCEPT:

A. it is more intimate

B. it is likely to consist of a two-person group

C. it is more “rough and tumble”

D. it is less competitive than boys’ play

4. Researchers have found that therapeutic play:

A. tends to increase children’s aggressive behavior

B. tends to make children feel even more anxiety

C. tends to help children to express their emotions

D. tends to take away children’s sense of control

5. American parents typically tend to encourage which characteristics in their children’s play


A. exploration

B. imagination

C. independence

D. all of these

6. The view that supports suppression of individual desire in favor of what is best for the group:

A. is rarer in Asian cultures

B. is known as collectivism

C. decreases bonding with parents

D. decreases obedience to authority

Page 1 (Chapter 8 Survey)

7. According to your textbook, around what age do children begin to develop the cognitive skills to

categorize people into different racial groups by using physical characteristics and social cues?

A. 3 B. 5

C. 7 D. 9

8. A person’s sense of self-worth or self-image is part of the overall dimension called:

A. self-esteem B. positive regard

C. cultural awareness D. performance initiative

9. Research has found that childhood self-esteem can:

A. have lifelong effects on attitudes and behavior

B. affect school performance

C. affect family relationships

D. all of these

10. The cognitive structure that we employ for selecting and processing information about ourselves

is the ________.

A. personality

B. self

C. personal cognitive structure

D. character

11. One of the central issues of early childhood is:

A. the child learning to trust the child’s caretakers

B. comprehending the concept of object permanence

C. developing a sense of a separate and distinct self

D. developmental achievement of ego integration

12. _______ is a particular type of motivation and inner strength that directs life and growth in such

a way as to become all one is capable of being.

A. Telepathy

B. Entelechy

C. Impulse

D. Impetus

13. The sets of cultural expectations that define the ways in which the members of each sex such

behave are known as:

A. gender roles

B. stereotypes

C. gender types

D. sexual categories

14. Gender identity is:

A. the characteristic traits one is born with

B. not related to socializing influences

C. an inherited characteristic

D. conception of self as male or female

Page 2 (Chapter 8 Survey)

15. Gender identity usually begins to form around what ages?

A. 1 to 2

B. 3 to 4

C. 5 to 6

D. 7 to 8

16. Brian has a favorite toy that is a baby doll. This is upsetting to Brian’s father because it conflicts

with society’s view of proper gender __________.

A. realities

B. roles

C. identities

D. characteristic

17. Which of the following statements is NOT true regarding hormones?

A. Both males and females have male and female hormones.

B. Progesterone makes males more aggressive than females.

C. The ratio of each hormone varies in males and females.

D. The predominance of female or male hormones influences the development of the fetal brain.

18. According to your textbook, which of the following statements is true?

A. Boys tend to be more verbal at an earlier age than girls do.

B. Girls have a greater tendency to be diagnosed with dyslexia.

C. Girls tend to be more analytical than boys, who are more active.

D. Girls tend to show more interest in people-oriented activities.

19. The theory associated with Lawrence Kohlberg, which claims that children first learn to label

themselves as “male” and “female” and then attempt to master the behaviors that fit their gender

category, is called:

A. psychosocial

B. psychoanalytical

C. cognitive learning

D. cognitive developmental

20. The process of transmitting culture, knowledge, skills, and dispositions that enable children to

participate effectively in group life is called:

A. conviviality

B. socialization

C. gender stereotyping

D. synchronization

Page 3 (Chapter 8 Survey)



Middle Childhood: Physical and Cognitive Development

NAME _________________________________________DATE ________________________

DIRECTION: Circle ONLY the letter to the correct answer and write the page number where you

found the answer in the right hand margin.

1. During middle childhood physical growth is __________ than it is during early childhood or


A. slower

B. faster

C. the same as

D. much faster

2. Lisa and Mark are both 8 years old. Whom would you expect to mature faster? Whom would you

expect to have more body fat?

A. They would both mature at the same rate and have the same proportion of body fat.

B. Mark would mature faster and have more body fat.

C Lisa would mature faster and have more body fat.

D. Mark would mature faster and Lisa would have more body fat.

3. Which of these is the most common childhood illness?

A. measles

B. mumps

C. chicken pox

D. upper respiratory infection

Answer: D

4. The major cause of death of children in middle childhood is:

A. cancer

B. diabetes

C. accidents

D. leukemia

5. Which group has the highest mortality rate for children in middle childhood?

A. white

B. black

C. Hispanic

D. Asian

6. The definition cited in your textbook for obesity is:

A. having a body mass index greater than the 95th percentile for age and gender

B. having a body mass index greater than the 50th percentile for age and gender

C. having 50 pounds of excess weight for age and gender

D. having 70 pounds of excess weight for age and gender

Page 1 (Chapter 9 Survey)

7. What proportion of children between the ages of 6 and 11 was overweight in 2004?

A. Nearly one in three B. Nearly one in seven

C. Nearly one in five D. Nearly one half

8. Which of the following health risks is related to overweight in children?

A. early cardiovascular disease

B. diabetes mellitus

C. orthopedic problems

D. all of these

9. Although childhood obesity and overweight are on the increase, _________ is on the decrease.

A. physical education in public schools

B. sedentary activity

C. school vending machines that offer “junk” foods

D. consumption of fast food

10. The awareness and understanding of one’s own mental processes is called:

A. mental maps

B. cognitive awareness

C. metacognition

D. cognitive compatibility

11. Research on creativity has found that:

A. formal education is essential to the development of creativity

B. creative people are often conventional thinkers with dull personalities

C. creative people were often encouraged when they were young

D. creativity relies on sheer talent to become evident

12. At about what age do children come to recognize certain regularities or unchanging qualities in

the inner dispositions and behaviors of individuals?

A. 11

B. 6

C. 8

D. 4

13. Children in the concrete operations stage:

A. cannot understand words not tied to their own personal experiences

B. can only describe objects, people, and events by their physical characteristics

C. cannot make comparisons between classes of objects

D. can describe objects, people, and events by categories and functions

14. Assessment instruments that attempt to measure abilities such as cognitive processing and

achievement are called:

A. psychometric tests

B. psychotropic tests

C. instrumental tests

D. assessment variables

Page 2 (Chapter 9 Survey)

15. 12-year-old John has an IQ of 60. He is not able to perform daily living skills independently and

lacks communication and social skills. John would most likely be classified as having:

A. a learning disability

B. functional deficits

C. mental retardation

D. social deficits

16. The determination of the severity of mental retardation is based upon:

A. observed behaviors

B. scores from IQ tests

C. physical appearance

D. genetic impairments

17. Warren has an IQ of 102 but has difficulty using spoken and written language. His mathematical

abilities are above average. Warren would most likely be classified as having:

A. a learning disability

B. functional deficits

C. mental retardation

D. social deficits

18. Raymond is impulsive, cannot follow directions, and finds it difficult to wait his turn for

outdoor activities. He frequently leaves his assignments before he is finished to pursue some other

activity. Raymond’s disability is most likely:

A. dyslexia

B. dysgraphia


D. dyscalculia

19. An Individualized Education Plan (IEP) is provided for all students who are classified as having

a disability. Which of the following people are involved in developing this plan?

A. school psychologist

B. child’s teacher

C. child advocate

D. all of these

20. According to your textbook, the largest proportion of students attends which alternative to

public schooling?

A. private schools

B. home schooling

C. charter schools

D. magnet schools

Page 3 (Chapter 9 Survey)



Adolescence: Physical and Cognitive Development

NAME _________________________________________DATE ________________________

DIRECTION: Circle ONLY the letter to the correct answer and write the page number where you

found the answer in the right hand margin.

1. The period in the life cycle when sexual and reproductive maturation become evident is called

A. maturation B. preadolescence

C. puberty D. growth spurt

2. The adolescent growth spurt tends to occur:

A. earlier in girls than in boys B. earlier in boys than in girls

C. at the same time in boys and girls D. only among certain ethnic groups

3. Alyssa has just experienced her first menstrual period. This is known as:

A. ovulation B. menarche

C. menopause D. PMS

4. According to the research cited in your textbook, which girls would be more likely to develop

symptoms such as depression, substance abuse, eating disorders, and disruptive behavior?

A. those who had later puberty B. those who had early puberty

C. those who had insecure attachment D. those who had the most siblings

5. According to the research cited in your textbook, young white and African American women in

the United States:

A. have similar views regarding their bodies and body image

B. both express dissatisfaction with their bodies

C. both express satisfaction with their bodies

D. differ dramatically in how they view their bodies

6. The most common eating disorder in the United States is:

A. obesity B. underweight

C. bulimia D. anorexia

7. According to the survey cited in your textbook, what percent of high school students reported that

they smoked tobacco?

A. 5 B. 12

C. 19 D. 22

8. The most common setting for teenage drinking is:

A. public park grounds B. public school grounds

C. other people’s homes D. teens’ own bedrooms

Page 1 (Chapter 11 Survey)

9. What is the most prevalent sexually transmitted infection in the United States?

A. syphilis B. gonorrhea

C. Chlamydia D. genital herpes

10. Which of the following statement is true regarding teens and sex?

A. More teens engage in oral sex because they believe it is more acceptable and less risky.

B. More teens engage in vaginal sex because they believe it is more acceptable and less risky.

C. Most teens do not use condoms.

D. U.S. teens have the lowest rates of gonorrhea, syphilis, and chlamydia of the sexually active


11. According to the research cited in your textbook, condom use among sexually active


A. has decreased slightly B. has increased significantly

C. has decreased significantly D. has increased slightly

12. Sixteen-year-old Bart is getting a tattoo. Which of the following could be a reason for him to

engage in body art?

A. to demonstrate social identity B. to commemorate a special event

C. to be entertained D. all of these

13. According to the statistics cited in your textbook, adolescent rates of “seriously considering

suicide” over the past decade have_______ while the rates of actual attempted suicide_________.

A. increased; decreased B. decreased; increased

C. remained the same; decreased D. increased; remained the same

14. What is the major cause of death for adolescents?

A. heart disease B. driving accidents

C. assault (homicide) D. suicide

15. According to Piaget, adolescence is the final and highest stage in the development of cognitive

functioning from infancy to adulthood. It is called the period of:

A. concrete operations B. formal operations

C. operant thinking D. cognitive operations

Page 2 (Chapter 11 Survey)



Early Adulthood: Physical and Cognitive Development

NAME _________________________________________DATE ________________________

DIRECTION: Circle ONLY the letter to the correct answer and write the page number where you

found the answer in the right hand margin.

1. A new developmental stage has been proposed. It spans the ages 18 through 25 and is a time that

involves greater exploration of possibilities in work, love, and worldviews. What is this stage is


A. emerging adulthood B. post-adolescence

C. late adolescence D. evolving adulthood

2. The age cohort consisting of about 58 million adults who experienced events such as the Vietnam

War, the protest movement, and Woodstock is known as:

A. Generation X B. baby boomers

C. the Silent Generation D. the Millennials

3. The age cohort between the ages of 25 and 35 that generally shares an acceptance of diversity in

regard to race, ethnicity, family structure, sexual orientation, and lifestyle, and of whom more than

40 percent spent time in a single-parent home, is called:

A. Generation X B. the Silent Generation

C. baby boomers D. the Millennials

4. The age cohort born between the early 1980s and 2000s that is generally characterized as

sheltered, achievement oriented, and conventional is known as:

A. Generation X B. the Silent Generation

C. baby boomers D. Millennials

5. The set of changes that occurs in the structure and functioning of the human organism over time

is called:

A. social aging B. biological aging

C. transition points D. social norms

6. The set of changes in an individual’s assumption and relinquishment of roles over time is called:

A. social aging B. biological aging

C. transition points D. social norms

7. Beliefs that a person should not cut ahead in line at the grocery store, and that one should say

“Please” and “Thank you” are examples of:

A. normally sanctioned behavior B. age norms

C. transition points D. social norms

Page 1 (Chapter 13 Survey)

8. Social norms that define what is appropriate for people to be and to do at various ages are termed:

A. normally sanctioned behavior B. age norms

C. transition points D. social norms

9 According to your textbook, which of the following statements is true concerning social class and

the pace of the social clock?

A. The lower the socioeconomic class, the later events such as getting a job, starting a family, and

getting married tend to be.

B. The higher the socioeconomic class, the later events such as getting a job, starting a family, and

getting married tend to be.

C. Socioeconomic class is not a factor in the timing of events such as getting a job, starting a

family, and getting married.

D. None of these is true.

10. The peak years for speed and agility are from:

A. 10 to 14 B. 15 to 17

C. 18 to 30 D. 30 to 35

11. According to the statistics cited in your textbook, what percent of people in the United States

did not have health insurance in 2004?

A. 6 percent B. 12 percent

C. 16 percent D. 22 percent

12. Who is LEAST likely to be uninsured?

A. Marlon, a 19-year-old college student

B. Joy, a part-time waitress

C. William, the CEO of a corporation

D. Anna, an immigrant

13. Which of the following statements is true?

A. Employers can lose more work days from sickness in young adults than in older adults.

B. The leading cause of death among young adults is from disease.

C. Work-related accidents account for the majority of the accidental deaths among young adults.

D. Exercise makes little difference in the health of young adults.

14. Most health experts recommend which of the following for cardiovascular fitness?

A. a quick-start, strenuous program of daily exercise for at least 45 minutes per day

B. 30 minutes moderate exercise 5x/week or 20 minutes vigorous exercise 3x/week

C. eliminating all saturated fat, refined sugar and flour, and insoluble fiber from the diet

D. engaging in a regular program of receiving intensive cardiovascular massage therapy

15. According to the statistics cited in your textbook, how many people worldwide are estimated to

be living with AIDS?

A. over 1 million B. over 6 million

C. over 26 million D. over 46 million

Page 2 (Chapter 13 Survey)

16. ___________ has the highest number of people living with AIDS.

A. South and Southeast Asia B. Eastern Europe

C. sub-Saharan Africa D. North America

17. According to the research cited in your textbook, about what percent of U.S. college students

admitted that they had engaged in binge drinking?

A. 10 B. 25

C. 40 D. 80

18. According to the research cited in your textbook, which of the following relates to depression in


A. unequal employment opportunities

B. unequal pay and authority in the workplace

C. the burden of child care and housework

D. all of these

19. Hereditary predispositions to psychological disorders are most probably due to a defect in:

A. the encoding in some brain receptors

B. the metabolism of lipids and proteins

C. the function of the pituitary gland

D. the function of the lymphatic system

20. Psychologists who study stress have concluded that it resides neither in the individual nor in the

situation alone but in:

A. the person’s unique genetic composition

B. the impact of some environmental factors

C. how the person defines a particular event

D. the individual’s social and income levels

Page 3 (Chapter 13 Survey)



Early Adulthood: Emotional and Social Development

NAME _________________________________________DATE ________________________

DIRECTION: Circle ONLY the letter to the correct answer and write the page number where you

found the answer in the right hand margin.

1. A(n) _________ tie is a social link formed when we commit ourselves to another person and a(n)

___________ tie is a social link that is formed when we cooperate with another person to achieve a

limited goal.

A. expressive; instrumental B. instrumental; expressive

C. emotional; influential D. influential; emotional

2. Relationships that a person has with family, friends, and lovers are called:

A. private B. social

C. primary D. secondary

3. According to Erik Erikson, the primary task confronting young adults is:

A. intimacy vs. isolation B. integrity vs. despair

C. identity vs. role confusion D. generativity vs. stagnation

4. The median age at which men marry today is:

A. 19 B. 23

C. 25 D. 27

5. Research on the phases of adult female development has shown:

A. Men and women follow a similar pattern of adult development.

B. Women today are more likely to follow a variety of paths.

C. Intimacy is not an important factor in female development.

D. Female development closely approximates Erikson’s stages.

6. The three elements of passion, intimacy, and commitment are components of:

A. Levinson’s stage theory of development

B. Gilligan’s theory of women’s development

C. Sternberg’s triangular theory of love

D. Mogul’s theory of stock taking

7. The kind of love that only evokes passion is called:

A. nonlove B. companionate

C. infatuation D. romantic

8. A relationship that has intimacy and passion but lacks commitment is called


A. nonlove B. companionate

C. infatuation D. romantic

Page 1 (Chapter 14 Survey)

9. Emme and Philip both describe their relationship as having passion, intimacy, and commitment.

According to Sternberg’s theory their relationship can be described as:

A. romantic love B. companionate love

C. fatuous love D. consummate love

10. According to the research cited in your textbook, marrying one’s great love:

A. is not associated with greater happiness in marriage

B. is associated with marital duration and satisfaction

C. is associated with higher rates of divorce

D. is no different than marrying someone else

Answer: B

11. The overall pattern of living whereby we attempt to meet our biological, social, and emotional

needs is known as:

A. lifeways B. life patterns

C. lifestyle D. relationships

12. A major step in the transition to adulthood is leaving the family home. In the past this usually

came about because of:

A. crowded conditions B. getting married

C. a family feud D. cheap housing

13. The pattern in the United States and many Western nations today is toward:

A. leaving the parental home at younger ages than in the past

B. marrying earlier yet choosing to live with the parents of one of the spouses

C. people aged 18 to 34 staying in the parental home as the primary residence

D. people aged 18 to 34 living on their own in communities composed mostly of young people

14. According to the recent U.S. Census data cited in your textbook, the percentage of 18- to 34-

year-olds never married is:

A. 60 percent male and 60 percent female

B. 50 percent male and 60 percent female

C. 50 percent male and 50 percent female

D. 40 percent male and 30 percent female

15. From 1970 to 2000, the median age at first marriage:

A. has decreased for both men and women

B. has increased for both men and women

C. has decreased for women but increased for men

D. has decreased for men but increased for men

16. Which of the following factors contributes to the increase in single households?

A. deferral of marriage among young adults

B. a high rate of separation and divorce

C. ability of the elderly to maintain their own homes

D. all of these

Page 2 (Chapter 14 Survey)

17. Since 1960, the rates of cohabitation have:

A. declined slightly B. declined sharply

C. increased sharply D. remained the same

18. According to your textbook, which of the following statements is true regarding sexual


A. Sexual orientation in all people is clearly delineated as homosexual or heterosexual.

B. Sexual orientation is a matter of “either/or”; there are no degrees of variation.

C. Some individuals show varying degrees of orientation, including bisexuality.

D. Orientation is fixed at birth and never changes for all people.

19. A lifestyle practice that exists in all contemporary societies is:

A. polyandry B. polygyny

C. bigamy D. marriage

20. King David and King Solomon each had several wives. This practice is called:

A. polyandry B. polygyny

C. group marriage D. serial monogamy

Page 3 (Chapter 14 Survey)



Middle Adulthood: Physical and Cognitive Development

NAME _________________________________________DATE ________________________

DIRECTION: Circle ONLY the letter to the correct answer and write the page number where you

found the answer in the right hand margin.

1. As of 2005, the average life expectancy of U.S. men and women at age 65 was:

A. mid 60s B. late 60s

C. 70s D. 80s

2. Some of the common causes of hearing loss include:

A. cochlear damage due to prolonged exposure to loud noise

B. lack of good muscle tone in the middle ear

C. job-related noise levels

D. all of these

3. Regina and Joanne are in their mid 40s. They are discussing the signs of aging that are affecting

their appearance. What in particular are they likely to be discussing?

A. skin that is drier, thinner, and less elastic

B. skin that is sagging and wrinkled on the face and at the joints

C. dark patches of skin on the face and hands

D. all of these

4. In general, compared to women, men have better-looking skin as they age because:

A. They do not moisturize their skin as women do.

B. They do not wear make-up the way that women do.

C. Their skin tends to be thicker than women’s skin.

D. They slough off dead skin cells when they shave.

5. Ron and Delores are both 35 years old, but tests show that Delores has lost bone mass while Ron

has not. This is because:

A. men have more bone mass than women

B. men retain more calcium

C. women lose bone mass more slowly as they age

D. men are more muscular

6. An inflammatory disease that causes pain, swelling, stiffness, and loss of function of the joints is


A. rheumatoid arthritis B. arteriosclerosis

C. osteoarthritis D. calcitonin

Page 1 (Chapter 15 Survey)

7. Which of the following statements is true about prostate cancer?

A. It is the second leading cause of cancer death in men.

B. In general, most prostate cancers are fast growing.

C. Japanese men have the highest rates of prostate cancer.

D. Prostate cancer is most prevalent in men under 50 years of age.

8. According to a study cited in your textbook, what percent of men over the age of 40 experience

potency problems?

A. 10 percent B. 20 percent

C. 35 percent D. 50 percent

9. Hypertension affects what percent of adults in the United States?

A. half B. one in ten

C. one in four D. one in twenty

10. According to your textbook, the leading cause of death for women in the U.S. is:

A. colon cancer B. lung cancer

C. breast cancer D. skin cancer

11. When blood circulation to the brain fails, it leads to:

A. cardiovascular disease B. stroke

C. Parkinson’s disease D. seizure

12. Trembling in hands, arms, legs, jaw, and face; rigidity or stiffness of limbs and trunk; slowness

of movement; postural instability or impaired balance and coordination are symptoms most closely

associated with:

A. Alzheimer’s disease B. stroke

C. cardiovascular disease D. Parkinson’s disease

13. Which of the following statements is true?

A. Studies report infidelity occurring in 20 to 25% of marriages.

B. About 50 percent of married men and 50 percent of married women say they have been


C. More women than men have admitted to being unfaithful.

D. A majority of both men and women have had only one sex partner since the age of 18.

14. The probability of HIV-positive women infecting their male partners with the virus was found

to be:

A. significantly high B. significantly low

C. about the same as the probability of HIV-positive men infecting their female partners

D. about the same as the probability of HIV-positive women infecting their female partners

15. How is crystallized intelligence acquired?

A. in the course of social experience

B. through genetically preset maturation

C. through changes in crystal structures in the brain

D. solely through formal education

Page 2 (Chapter 15 Survey)



Dying and Death


DIRECTION: Circle ONLY the letter to the correct answer and write the page number where you

found the answer in the right hand margin.

1. The study of death is called:

A. epistemology B. teleology

C. theology D. thanatology

2. ______ euthanasia allows death to occur by withholding or removing treatments that would

prolong life.

A. Passive B. Involuntary

C. Voluntary D. Active

3. A legal document that states an individual’s wishes regarding medical care (such as refusal of

“heroic measures” to prolong his or her life in the event of terminal illness) in case the person

becomes incapacitated and unable to participate in decisions about his or her medical care is known

as a:

A. testament B. living will

C. death wish D. none of these

4. The survivors of a loved one’s death most likely to feel isolated are those whose loved one:

A. died from AIDS B. died in war

C. died from suicide D. died by euthanasia

5. More ______attempt suicide but more ______succeed at suicide.

A. males; females B. females; males

C. elderly people; young people D. young people; elderly people

6. Which of the following ethnic groups has the highest suicide rate?

A. Native American B. White American

C. Asian American D. Hispanic American

7. According to the statistics cited in your textbook, the fastest growing suicide rate is occurring


A. White women B. young Hispanics

C. Asian men D. Black women

8. What do members of these professions: dentists, artists, machinists, auto mechanics, and

carpenters, have in common?

A. lower than average suicide rates B. rates equal to the average for suicide

C. higher than average suicide rates D. none of these

Page 1 (Chapter 19 Survey)

9. Suicide rates are highest during which periods of the lifespan?

A. adolescence and late adulthood B. young adulthood and middle age

C. middle age and late adulthood D. late childhood and middle age

10. An estimated 7 million people have experienced an event commonly precipitated by medical

illness, traumatic accident, surgical operation, childbirth, or drug ingestion, in which, after being

pronounced clinically dead, they have the sensation of leaving their bodies and undergoing

otherworldly experiences before being resuscitated. This is known as:

A. brain death B. terminal drop

C. near-death experience D. a spiritual awakening

11. When an individual resists acknowledging the reality of impending death, this refers to which of

Kübler-Ross’ stages of dying?

A. anger B. depression

C. denial D. bargaining

12. When a dying individual asks, “Why me?” and makes life difficult for friends, family, and

medical personnel with little justification, this most likely refers to which of Kübler-Ross’ stages of


A. anger B. depression

C. denial D. bargaining

13. According to the statistics cited in your textbook, for the majority of people in the United States,

where does death occur?

A. at home B. in a nursing home

C. in a hospital D. in a hospice

14. The socially established manner of displaying signs of sorrow over a person’s death is known


A. grief B. mourning

C. bereavement D. anticipatory grief

15. According to the statistics cited in your textbook, what proportion of people who are widowed

each year still suffer from serious depression a year or more later?

A. one-half B. one-third

C. one-quarter D. three-quarters

Page 2 (Chapter 19 Survey)

How do psychotherapies differ?